|Johann Jakesch's signature and seal -1811|
|The seals signatures on the contract of Franz Disenni's second marriage -1827|
|Seal and signature of Haydn's brother-in-law Joseph Keller|
|Seal and signature of Sister Josepha Keller on a deed of donation in favor of her maidservant Eva Wassermann from 1818|
|The seals and signatures on Mathias Jakesch's and Walburga Kreb's marriage contract -1828|
|Seal and signature of Vivaldi's landlady Agatha Waller on her will, written on 14 August 1751|
|Anton Kraft's signature as witness to a wedding on 13 June 1810|
|Anton Kraft's seal|
|Claudius Jenamy's seal and signature in the 1742 Kirchenmeisteramtsrechnung of St. Stephen's|
|Amelie Rzehaczek's seal and signature on her 1791 will|
|The seal of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the signature of its Viennese administrator Johann Michael Aurnhammer|
|Friedrich Sebastian Meier's seal and signature from 1812|
|Mathias Staufer's seal and signature on his 1776 marriage contract|
|Seal and signature of Gottried Ignaz von Ployer|
|Franz Rzehaczek, signing in 1817 as "k.k. Hofkonzipist and representative of his brother-in-law Ignaz Schuppanzig who is currently in Lemberg"|
|Johann Georg Staufer taking the oath as "Wiener Bürger". The signature below Staufer's is that of the guild's head Mathias|
|The signatures of the violin makers Ignatz Partl and his brother Christian. Stauffer took over Ignatz Partl's shop in 1800|
Sealing wax is a wax material of a seal which, after melting, quickly hardens (to paper, parchment, ribbons and wire, and other material) forming a bond that is difficult to separate without noticeable tampering. Wax is used to verify something such as a document is unopened, to verify the sender's identity, for example with a signet ring, and as decoration. Sealing wax can be used to take impressions of other seals. Wax was used to seal letters close and later, from about the 16th century, envelopes. Before sealing wax, the Romans used bitumen for this purpose.
Formulas vary, but there was a major shift after European trade with the Indies opened. In the Middle Ages sealing wax was typically made of beeswax and 'Venice turpentine', a greenish-yellow resinous extract of the European Larch tree. The earliest such wax was uncolored; later the wax was colored red with vermilion. From the 16th century it was compounded of various proportions of shellac, turpentine, resin, chalk or plaster, and coloring matter (often vermilion, or red lead), but not necessarily beeswax. The proportion of chalk varied; coarser grades are used to seal wine bottles and fruit preserves, finer grades for documents. In some situations, such as large seals on public documents, beeswax was used. On occasion, sealing wax has historically been perfumed by ambergris, musk and other scents.
By 1866 many colors were available: gold (using mica), blue (using smalt or verditer), black (using lamp black), white (using lead white), yellow (using the mercuric mineral turpeth, also known as Schuetteite), green (using verdigris) and so on. Some users such as the British Crown assigned different colors to different types of documents. Today a range of synthetic colors is available.